Deal Structure

What is an M&A Deal Structure?

An M&A deal structure, or merger and acquisition deal structure, is a system for structuring the negotiations and eventual closing of a business transaction. The structure of the deal is established at the start of the process and should be designed to create value for the parties involved. 

A typical M&A deal structure includes a purchase agreement, which outlines the terms of the transaction; a financing agreement; and a due diligence process, which helps to assess the value of the assets being bought or sold. 

Basics of an M&A Deal Structure 

  • Deal Structure: Provide a framework that outlines the terms of an M&A transaction; including the roles and responsibilities of each party involved in the transaction. 
  • Legal Documentation: The legal documentation associated with an M&A deal typically includes an agreement and disclosure documents such as a purchase and sale agreement, merger agreement, and disclosure schedule. 
  • Financing: A key component of an M&A transaction and involves the use of debt or equity to fund the transaction. 
  • Due Diligence: The process of investigating a company’s financials, operations, and legal documents to ensure that the information provided is accurate.
  • Closing: Involves the formal exchange of documents and payment of the purchase price.

Deal Structure Objectives

Once the parties have agreed on the transactions that will take place, the next step is to structure the deal. The deal structure objectives include ensuring that the deal is structured in a tax-efficient manner, that it minimizes the number of regulatory filings or approvals required, and that it is structured in a way that maximizes the value to all parties involved. The structure of the deal will vary depending on the particular transaction and the parties involved, and the objectives of the parties must be considered.

Structuring the Deal Terms

When structuring the deal terms, it is important to consider the legal document which will govern the transaction. This document should be carefully reviewed and negotiated to ensure that all parties understand their rights and obligations and are adequately protected. 

Some of the key considerations when structuring the deal terms include the purchase price, financing options, warranties and representations, escrow and closing conditions, and post-closing matters. Additionally, dispute resolution and indemnification provisions should be included in the agreement to ensure that any potential conflicts that may arise are addressed in a timely manner.

Closing the Deal

Many deals fall apart at this stage due to several factors including the parties involved, the amount or type of compensation, or the timeline of the deal. It is important to have clear expectations and understanding of the parties involved so that the deal can be successfully closed and executed. Additionally, it is important to have a timeline in place to ensure that all parties have enough time to review, negotiate, and execute the deal. Finally, it is important to keep communication open and honest between all parties so that the deal can be closed on time.

The Bottom Line

In conclusion, deal structures are complicated and require a great deal of consideration, not only regarding the economics of the deal, but also the legal terms and agreements that need to be in place. Understanding the different options that are available to you and assessing which one is best for your situation is essential. With the right deal structure, entrepreneurs can maximize the benefit of the deal while protecting their interests.